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The classic Pythagorean identity is:  $$sin^2(\theta) + cos^2(\theta) =1$$

The binomial formula which calculates the probability of obtaining k tails when flipping a coin n times, with a assumed probability p for each trial is: $$P(E) = {n \choose k} p^k (1-p)^{ n-k}$$

Finally, the normal (Gaussian) distribution defined by mean $$\mu$$ and variance $$\sigma^2$$ is:

$f(x; \mu, \sigma^2) = \frac{1}{\sigma \sqrt{2\pi}} e^{-\frac{1}{2} (\frac{x-\mu}{\sigma})^2}$

A video explaining this process can be found here: